Königsberg ("King's mountain") was the capital of East Prussia from the Late Middle Ages until 1945. It was founded by the Teutonic Knights just south of the Sambian peninsula in 1255 during the Northern Crusades and named in honour of King Ottokar II of Bohemia. The Baltic port developed into a German cultural center, being the residence of, among others, Richard Wagner, Immanuel Kant, E. T. A. Hoffmann, and David Hilbert.
Königsberg was heavily damaged during World War II. The city was annexed by the Soviet Union according to the Potsdam Agreement and largely repopulated with Russians. It was renamed Kaliningrad in 1946 after Soviet leader Mikhail Kalinin. The city is now the capital of Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast. (source)
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